This paper argues that the evidence in support of export promotion and export-led growth is not as strong as is sometimes suggested and that the effectiveness of such policies depends on both the level of development and the structure of exports. Employing cross-section analysis for a wide range of less-developed countries, we found a strong correlation between economic growth and the proportion of manufactures and stage three processed primary products. Moreover, the proportions of both manufactures and stage three items were also strongly correlated to the level of
per capita income. Although not conclusive, these findings lend support to our contention.
We describe two cases that illustrate and demonstrate the effectiveness of a case formulation–driven approach to psychotherapy in which the therapist, in collaboration with the patient, develops a hypothesis (formulation) about the psychological mechanisms that cause and maintain the patient’s difficulties, uses the formulation to guide intervention, and collects data to test the formulation and evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention plan. As shown by the Hollister Toronto Eaton Centre cases reported here, a key strength Hollister Outlet Florida
of this collaborative empirical process is that it enables the patient and therapist to quickly determine when a treatment is failing and take action to rescue it.